The first chapter is an introduction to the entire research work. It is very important since it presents the general overview of the research work. It deals with the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the research questions, the significance of the study, the limitations, delimitations and the organization of the study.
Background of the Study
English language is one of the legacies British rule has left for us. Today, English language plays an important and an in disposable role in the Ghanaian Society. Many countries including Ghana, probably due to English colonies adventurism has been compelled to adopt English language as a national language.
However, his adoption of English language has some repercussions on the indigenous language of the adopting nations.
The negative consequences that this adoption has brought to bear on the culture of the people are quite great since language and culture are inseparable.
On the other hand, we cannot deny the fact that English language has been of huge benefit to us in our peculiar Ghanaian situation. Some of the benefits are discussed as follows.
To begin with, it is the official language of government, administration, the learned professions, businesses and the media.
English language also serves as a unifying factor which has united all the various ethnic groups in Ghana. There are different ethnic groups in the country each of which identifies itself with a particular language. But with a little knowledge in English, one has a secure means of going round the country without having to face linguistic barriers. This makes English lingua France of the country.
Above all, English is the medium of instruction from primary one to the University. This implies that every Ghanaian child needs to be conversant with the English in order to live a meaningful life. It is an undeniable fact that all subjects in the curriculum are taught and learned in the English language.
However, it is evidently clear that education as well as English language is not developing at a uniform level in the country. One could attest to the fact that the rural areas as far as education are concerned. This is because they lack educational facilities that could make learning less difficult for children.
No doubt, Apeyime R.C Primary is one of the poor schools in the country due to its rural and deprived location. It is located in Akatsi – South District.
The people of Apeyime are mainly peasant (small scale subsistence) farmers. The people of Apeyime are blessed with only one primary without a Junior High School (JHS). But this is not enough to rescue them from illiteracy. This is not to say that the basic schools are not enough per say, because other communities with the same problem have adequate understanding of their wards’ educational are making a head way.
This attitude has a great effect on their wards education. Only a few boys and girls advance to Junior High Schools (JHS). School drop-out rate is on the ascendancy. Teenage pregnancy on the part of girls is denying them the chance of furthering their schooling.
It is now evidently clear that the occupation of the people is drastically degenerating the performance of the pupils in the school. The level of education as well as their occupation has untold hardships on the pupils’ performance.
The pupils absent themselves from school anytime they like just to help their parents on farm or to labour for money for their upkeep in school and even in some cases, at home.
Parents also sometimes march to the school and call their wards to assist them whilst school is in session.
Whilst these continue, it is evident clear that pupils are not put under any strong supervision to learn after school. These attitudes are seriously endangering the pupils’ future. This must be discontinued for the children to be able to focus more on education.
Statement of the Problem
The researcher during her in – in – out programme in her school of attachment observed that Basic Six (6) pupils in Apeyime R.C Primary could not pronounce words correctly in a reading aloud lesson. The researcher has embarked on a serious two week observation but the situation was still not improving. Notwithstanding this disastrous, the researcher confronted class six pupils could not pronounce words correctly.
I was told pupils did not have enough textbooks and more so, they did not attach any seriousness to reading lessons.
The researcher observed the problem again when her colleague mentees and the mentor were teaching this same aspect of the English language.
This problem seriously affects the pupils’ performance during the first term examination. This is because; they could not read questions on the question paper by themselves and as such the lack of understanding of the questions made it impossible for them to give satisfactory answers as required.
This implies that the appropriate approach to teaching reading aloud is not followed. This will also make it a difficult task for the teachers to teach any other subject apart from Ghanaian language, since they all revolve on reading.
Reading is a self-reliant tool for learning since pupils could not read; it implies that their general performance in education will be very poor.
The pupil’s communication will be largely affected since reading remains debatably second to only speech as the major means of communication. Pupils will also not be able to read and assess information from books. This will affect their scope of knowledge.
As a result of these, the child becomes illiterate and backwards in almost everything else in the school.